Liddell, MD; Richard T. Mehta, MD; Jay B. Varkey, MD; Colleen S.
Melissa McDiarmid and Bill Kojola 9 presented the highlighted questions emerging from their discussions see Box 4. Approach to evaluating system in which personal protective equipment and behaviors are embedded e.
What training, for what staff, with what risk, and how often? Waste Handling and Management Although not always included in discussions related to public health emergencies, issues and concerns surrounding handling of infected materials and waste management have received much attention during this outbreak, partially due to the lack of knowledge regarding survival on different surfaces and in different types of media.
Page 8 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press. Both Lowe and Olinger agreed that treatment of EVD patients generated far more waste than many realize, with Lowe stating that a 3-week stay for one patient generated more than 1, pounds of waste requiring special treatment and disposal.
He also noted that thermal treatment autoclaving is typically analogous to disinfection; however, in the case of Ebola viruses, there are no available data on thermal treatment to directly evaluate.
Because there is a limited capacity in the United States to handle EVD-contaminated waste, said Lemieux, more data are needed on effective methods of treatment and disposal. Sharpe added that it will be important to also protect the health and safety of workers who will be performing these processes.
Many questions on managing EVD-contaminated waste arose, especially relating to sectors such as waste management personnel, funeral directors, and hospital maintenance staff. Page 9 Share Cite Suggested Citation: A few participants called for a model for hospital waste management—and for other settings such as airport screening areas, individual homes, schools, and others.
In response to this, Lemieux called for more research on natural attenuation as a means of decontamination and more data on the effectiveness of decontamination on porous materials. Assisting as a discussion leader, Dan Hanfling 10 presented research questions related to waste handling and management see Box 5 on previous page.
Identifying a surrogate virus, categorized at or below BSL-2, would allow many more studies to be done, informing a variety of concerns.
For example, one consideration is the fact that incinerating bleach-soaked materials releases dioxins. The infectivity level of decedents was noted by several groups as well, as this information could affect funeral homes, wastewater treatment facilities, those handling bodies, and other stakeholders.
The need for a risk assessment was brought forward by a participant from the National Science Foundation NSFespecially related to viability in water and wastewater and corresponding needs for disinfection and decontamination. She stated this as an important concern for hospitals trying to transport the waste once it has been autoclaved or chemically disinfected.
Finally, the concept of a systems approach was highlighted in a variety of discussions throughout the day, especially related to PPE and procedures surrounding hierarchy of controls. One concept that many participants highlighted during this time was risk communication, encompassing a broad spectrum that includes multi-level communication through hospitals, public health, and other involved sectors.
A participant called for research on the best ways of communicating to young people and the public to reduce fear messages from the media and encourage learning sessions about the disease to avoid stigma.
Hodgson also added that we want to create an organizational culture of safety that encourages workers in relevant sectors to come to work, or the problem may only worsen.
Peters described what he thought would be important research issues of therapeutic modalities and treatment options. Traditionally, a hierarchy of controls has been used as a means of determining how to implement feasible and effective controls.
For more on hierarchy of controls, see http: Page 10 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Goldman summarized that this outbreak demonstrates the need for an infrastructure of disaster science.
She highlighted the following issues that require attention prior to a disaster, which were addressed in a previous IOM workshop on how to perform research during disasters and public health emergencies; 12 considerations of rapid funding mechanisms, data collection methods, rapid institutional review board and biosafety research approval processes; and integration of research into an operational response.SOCIOECONOMIC FACTORS AND THE EBOLA VIRUS DISEASE OUTBREAK IN GUINEA, LIBERIA, AND SIERRA LEONE INTRODUCTION: Ebola virus disease (EVD) is an infectious disease transmitted by close contact with an estimated case fatality rate fluctuating around 50%.
The most affected countries by the West African Ebola outbreak were Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Ebola virus disease; Synonyms: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Ebola: The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to study because of EBOV's virulent characteristics. Non-infectious diseases that may result in symptoms similar to those of EVD include acute promyelocytic leukemia.
Ebola Virus is a serious transmitted disease by both humans and animals. The disease first appeared in in 2 simultaneous outbreaks, one in Nzara, Sudan, and the .
Abstract. This article sought to analyze the clinical features of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) in an Ebola holding center in Sierra Leone from .
Apr 11, · Read CNN's Fast Facts on Ebola and learn more about the deadly virus. The –15 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic strained health systems in west Africa already overburdened with other diseases, including malaria.
Because EVD and malaria can be difficult to distinguish clinically, and rapid testing was not available in many Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs), guidelines recommended empirical malaria treatment.