Action Plan for the Global Strategy for the Prevention and Control of non-communicable Diseases and with two-thirds of people who are affected by diabetes now residing in developing nations, NCD can no longer be considered just a problem affecting affluent estimation of the economic impact of chronic non-communicable diseases in selected countries.
Abstract Background The burden of chronic non-communicable diseases is on the rise in middle and low income countries on top of the existing infectious diseases. Moreover, the distributions of the specific risk factors are not systematically identified in those countries hampering the designing of appropriate preventive and control strategies.
The objective of this component of the study was to describe the distribution of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Data were collected using WHO steps instruments translated into the local languages.
Individuals for the study were selected by stratified random sampling for interviewing, physical examination and biochemical tests from the study base. Results The distribution of the various categories of risk factors is identified. Among the behavioral risk factors, the prevalence of smoking is 9.
The prevalence of physical risk factors is 9. The prevalence of metabolic disorders is Conclusion The magnitude of risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases is considerably high in the study population.
Appropriate preventive measure and should be designed to prevent and control these risk factors. Risk factors, CNCD, southwest Ethiopia Introduction Chronic non-communicable diseases CNCDs such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, Chronic non communicable diseases cncd respiratory disease, mental illnesses and diabetes are leading causes of death and disability worldwide 1 — 3.
The major identified risk factors for most CNCDs include tobacco use, alcoholism, high blood pressure, high blood glucose, serum lipid abnormalities, obesity, low fruit and vegetable intake, physical inactivity and biological factors 45.
Studies have indicated that these risk factors are widespread globally 5. On the other hand it is shown that level of education, occupation and income affect tobacco use, physical activity and dietary habit which further influence Body Mass Index BMIblood pressure, and cholesterol level 2.
Khat chewing was shown to be associated with mental disorders, increased blood pressure, palpitation 6 — 8 and myocardial infarction 910 in Ethiopia. CNCDs can be prevented if the community gets appropriate information, education and communication on possible risk factors.
Most of the risks are attributable to lifestyle and behavioral patterns, and can be changed 24. Therefore, determining the burden of risk factors for CNCDs in the population would help to design and implement promotive and preventive measures. In the developing world, wide gap exists between the reality of the chronic disease burden and the response to it.
If the emergence and prevention of risk factors are left undirected, growth of the problem will continue accelerating 11 — Therefore a balance in prevention and control intervention between the already prevalent infectious diseases and the rising burden of CNCDs would be the best way forward 3 In the last few years, life style of the Ethiopian population is changing due to urbanization and demographic transition 13 As a result the burden of CNCDs could be on the rise.
In view of the above context and recognizing the paucity of similar studies in the country, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of known risk factors for CNCDs such as smoking, alcoholism, physical inactivity, suboptimal dietary habit, Khat chewing as well as metabolic disorders in community setting.
Individuals' aged 15 to 64 years from both sexes, who were residents of the 10 kebeles under surveillance by the research center were studied. Step one, two and three were used to assess the risk factors through interviewing, physical measurement and biochemical tests, respectively.
The population was stratified by sex, age 15—24 years, 25—34 years, 35—44 years, 45—54 years and 55—64 years and residential area urban and rural and such stratification was considered in the sample size calculation so as to be able to make analysis by those variables.
For step one interview and two physical measurementindividuals from each sex and each age stratum were taken giving a sample size of However, due to further stratification by residential area, the sample size was doubled to 5, The sample was allotted to each age, sex and residential area stratum proportional to its size.
Individual study participants were then selected from each stratum by stratified random sampling. The instruments were structured and contained questionnaire for Step one and recording formats for Step two and Step three. The questionnaire for Step 1 comprised questions about socioeconomic and demographic variables and questions for assessing behavioral risk factors for CNCDs including cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, dietary habit, khat chewing, and level of physical activity.
The recording formats were used to record physical measurement values of Step 2 such as blood pressure BPpulse rate, weight, height, waist and hip circumference; and values for biochemical markers of Step 3 such as fasting blood sugar level, total blood cholesterol level and blood triglycerides level Fifteen interviewers, six physical measurement recorders and three supervisors who completed at least high school and competent in local languages were recruited and trained on how to obtain consent, use equipments and how to perform and record the physical measurements.
Two nurses and two laboratory technicians were recruited and trained to collect blood sample, determine blood sugar level, and transport blood sample. The blood sample was transported in icepack and stored in freezers until analyzed.
Six trained laboratory technicians performed the laboratory analysis at Jimma University within 12 hours of blood sample collection.A non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is not caused by infectious agents (non-infectious or non-transmissible).
NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly. The Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases Behavioral Risk Factor or STEPS Survey was conducted as part of a situational analysis of CNCD’s and revealed that fifty-two percent of deaths in Dominica resulted from CNCD’s.
Vision. Forty percent of Mauritians are either diabetic or pre-diabetic, and most of this segment has additional chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD: stroke, diabetes and cardiovascular disease).
Chronic Non-communicable diseases reported prevalence The overall prevalence of chronic non-communicable disease was % (% men and % women). Of the respondents, 23 (%) reported that they were told to have diabetes mellitus by health professionals. NASSAU, Bahamas – Mortality data on Chronic Non-communicable Diseases (CNCD) in The Bahamas show that in , these diseases accounted for nearly 65 per cent of all deaths, Minister of Health and Social Development, the .
Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, mental illnesses and diabetes are leading .