This presents the results of a field study sponsored by the Amateur Softball Association. The data show that the swing speed of a typical player is inversely related to the bat moment of inertia about the handle with a fixed bat weight and nearly independent of the weight of the bat at fixed moment of inertia. Russell, and Lloyd V. Smith, The Engineering of Sport V, eds.
Though each, including this one, can be read "stand-alone", you really should first read the main Cheating in baseball essays here, which summarizes all of the findings and sets them out them in a coherent presentation.
Steroids Some Medical Background Before examining in detail the various claims made about medical effects and side effects of steroids, it would be wise to understand what a steroid is.
Explanations are available on line in many places, a representative one being the Wikipedia article Anabolic steroid which, incidentally, "has been identified as one of the best articles produced by the Wikipedia community". The article presents a good overview of both the chemistry involved and of many of the issues related to steroids, though not all assertions in it are supported by the scientific literature.
While an overview of steroids is useful, one must never forget that "steroids" is a word that encompasses a wide variety of individual substances. While they all belong to a single family, and thus have many similarities in their effects, there are important differences between them, such as the alkylation method used in making them.
The differences can be important.
There are two medical questions about steroid use in baseball: What gains might it provide? What harmful side effects might there be?
We will examine each question separately. Normal Unaugmented Patterns Before we look at whether performance might be abnormal, it is obviously essential to first know what normality is.
One of the much-too-frequently heard claims about the performances of older players those past their early 30s is that stable or increasing power "must" signify "cheating". Here are a few representative quotations from the literature: Strength and power declined beginning by age 40 in both women and men.
Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, Vol 52, Issue 5 BB] Isometric and dynamic strength increased up to the third decade, remained almost constant to the fifth decade, and then decreased with increasing age.
Gains From Steroids As "masculinizing" substances, steroids tend to amplify biological factors associated with hormone-governed masculine qualities, one of which is muscle development.
Although simple use of steroids will produce some modest increase in muscle mass, its real effects come into play when it is used in combination with substantial resistance training weight lifting or comparable machine exercise.
Steroids typically augment the muscle-building effects of such exercise. There are two critical points to be made about the effects of steroids in a muscle-development regimen. Degree of Gain The first critical point is that for every person there is an upper limit to the strength he or she can achieve.
No amount of exercises or steroids or bothover no matter how long a period, will ever enable anyone to throw automobiles around. No study can answer that question, because all studies are necessarily limited to some finite, reasonable time period.
But, as applied to baseball players--as opposed to bodybuilders or weight-lifters--that question is irrelevant. No ballplayer is developing his musculature to the absolute maximum possible, and the proof is that no ballplayer shows musculature remotely like the freakish over-development not uncommonly seen on avid bodybuilders.
So the question cannot be "do steroids make a ballplayer stronger? Distribution of Gain Different sports emphasize different muscles. The arm strength critical to a swimmer is much less important to a runner.
But--and this seems inadequately appreciated outside the medical profession--steroids do not affect all muscles alike. There is a marked differential in their effects. Steroidal effects on lower-body strength are far weaker: The principal advantages ascribed to anabolic steroids are those associated with androgenicity, or masculine traits.
Upper-body strength and muscularity are two such key traits. Testosterone increases upper-body mass differentially, so performance in [upper-body] tasks like weight-lifting should improve more than lower-body tasks or tasks in which aerobic aerobic capacity rather than strength are assessed.
As expected, the task in which increases have been reported most reliably are in the bench press. Recent Progress in Hormone Research Kuhn [S]teroids increase muscle mass and upper-body strength. The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in normal men.
N Engl J Med ; Pope said, with the most marked muscle growth in the upper body and the biceps. Concepts and ConnectionsSpencer A. Rathus Because this matter is so important, I will present a couple of further quotations.
Karl Friedl, the author of the chapter in Anabolic Steroids in Sport and Exercise already quoted above: Kochakian discovered early in his experiments that not all skeletal muscle responds to anabolic steroids equally. When he administered anabolic steroids to androgen-deficient guinea pigs, he found the predominant effect to be on upper-body muscles in the region of the shoulder girdle.Sep 12, · An underground economy of cheating and “professional” writing is at your fingertips — at the price of academic integrity and guilt, of course.
As higher education continues to add stress to students looking for academic perfection, an industry of high-level cheating is on the rise, allowing. Mymaster essay cheating scandal rocks the cosmological argument for the existence of god essays on success essay about athletics baseball longer words for essays on friendship passion essay.
Should abortion be legalised in mauritius essay. OBJECTIVES: Students will. 1. Respond orally and in writing to texts, primarily nonfiction.
2. Write as a way of exploring, developing, and confirming ideas in a process of communicating them.
online Ontario. persuasive conclusion paragraph example Baie-Comeau High school baseball essays need someone to make my report on alcohol due tomorrow need someone to .
Major League Baseball (MLB) players who use non-prescription illegal steroids are getting away with cheating and should be subject to stronger penalties. MLB has clearly not been successful in the prevention of illegal steroid use by athletes in baseball. Doping in Professional Sports.
but the players' union has refused to allow it and the baseball commissioner isn't pushing it. In the end, doping is all about economics.
Tags: cheating, essays, game theory, incentives, sports, trust. Posted on August 10, at AM • 67 Comments Comments.