Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid

Macromolecules are large molecules within your body that serve essential physiological functions. Encompassing carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, macromolecules exhibit a number of similarities.

Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid

Cholesterol, an important component of cell membranes, is an amphipathic molecule because of Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid polar hydroxyl group. Cholesterol is also a precursor to the steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estradiol a form more In addition to their roles as components of cell membranes, lipids function as signaling molecules, both within and between cells.

The steroid hormones such as estrogens and testosterone are derivatives of cholesterol see Figure 2. These hormones are a diverse group of chemical messengers, all of which contain four hydrocarbon rings to which distinct functional groups are attached.

Derivatives of phospholipids also serve as messenger molecules within cells, acting to convey signals from cell surface receptors to intracellular targets see Chapter Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA has a unique role as the genetic material, which in eukaryotic cells is located in the nucleus.

Different types of ribonucleic acid RNA participate in a number of cellular activities. In addition to acting as an informational molecule, RNA is also capable of catalyzing a number of chemical reactions. In present-day cells, these include reactions involved in both protein synthesis and RNA processing.

DNA and RNA are polymers of nucleotideswhich consist of purine and pyrimidine bases linked to phosphorylated sugars Figure 2.

DNA contains two purines adenine and guanine and two pyrimidines cytosine and thymine. Nucleic acids contain purine and pyrimidine bases linked to phosphorylated sugars. A nucleic acid base linked to a sugar alone is a nucleoside.

Nucleotides additionally contain one or more phosphate groups. Oligonucleotides are small polymers containing only a few nucleotides; the large polynucleotides that make up cellular RNA and DNA may contain thousands or millions of nucleotides, respectively. DNA is a double-stranded molecule consisting of two polynucleotide chains running in opposite directions see Chapter 3.

The bases are on the inside of the molecule, and the two chains are joined by hydrogen bonds between complementary base pairs— adenine pairing with thymine and guanine with cytosine Figure 2. The important consequence of such complementary base pairing is that one strand of DNA or RNA can act as a template to direct the synthesis of a complementary strand.

Nucleic acids are thus uniquely capable of directing their own self-replication, allowing them to function as the fundamental informational molecules of the cell. The information carried by DNA and RNA directs the synthesis of specific proteinswhich control most cellular activities.

The formation of hydrogen bonds between bases on opposite strands of DNA leads to the specific pairing of guanine G with cytosine C and adenine A with thymine T. Nucleotides are not only important as the building blocks of nucleic acids; they also play critical roles in other cell processes.

Other nucleotides similarly function as carriers of either energy or reactive chemical groups in a wide variety of metabolic reactions.

In addition, some nucleotides e. Proteins While nucleic acids carry the genetic information of the cell, the primary responsibility of proteins is to execute the tasks directed by that information.

Proteins are the most diverse of all macromolecules, and each cell contains several thousand different proteinswhich perform a wide variety of functions. The roles of proteins include serving as structural components of cells and tissues, acting in the transport and storage of small molecules e.

The most fundamental property of proteins, however, is their ability to act as enzymeswhich, as discussed in the following section, catalyze nearly all the chemical reactions in biological systems.

Thus, proteins direct virtually all activities of the cell. The specific chemical properties of the different amino acid side chains determine the roles of each amino acid in protein structure and function. At physiological pH, both the carboxyl and amino more The amino acids can be grouped into four broad categories according to the properties of their side chains Figure 2.

Functions of Lipids, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids & Proteins |

Ten amino acids have nonpolar side chains that do not interact with water. Glycine is the simplest amino acidwith a side chain consisting of only a hydrogen atom. Alanine, valine, leucine, and isoleucine have hydrocarbon side chains consisting of up to four carbon atoms.

The side chains of these amino acids are hydrophobic and therefore tend to be located in the interior of proteinswhere they are not in contact with water. The side chains of two amino acids, cysteine and methionine, contain sulfur atoms.This article covers the main categories of naturally occurring organic macromolecules: carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids.

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids & Nucleic Acids.

Carbohydrates proteins lipids and nucleic acid

Macromolecules are large molecules within your body that serve essential physiological functions. Encompassing carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, macromolecules exhibit a number of similarities.

For example, all except lipids are long chains made up of smaller building blocks, and. Nucleic acids consist of three different types of molecules joined together: a sugar, a phosphate molecule and another molecule that contains nitrogen, called a nitrogenous base.

The main role of nucleic acids is to store information that is used to make caninariojana.comd: Jun 17, Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids In what ways are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids linked to the daily functional needs of the human body?

Include sugars and starches, and contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates Referred to as "simple sugars". Most of these organic compounds belong to one of four classes of molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Proteins, nucleic acids, and most carbohydrates (the polysaccharides) are macromolecules formed by the joining (polymerization) of hundreds or thousands of low-molecular-weight precursors: amino acids, nucleotides, and.

Feb 11,  · Updated video on biomolecules (macromolecules): carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids by the Amoeba Sisters including examples, functions, monomers, and structures!

The Molecular Composition of Cells - The Cell - NCBI Bookshelf