It was established by Germans inin the suburbs of Oswiecim, a Polish city that was annexed to the Third Reich by the Nazis. Its name was changed to Auschwitz, which also became the name of Konzentrationslager Auschwitz.
See Article History Alternative Titles: Also among the dead were some 19, Roma who were held at the camp until the Nazis gassed them on July 31, —the only other victim group gassed in family units alongside the Jews. The Poles constituted the second largest victim group at Auschwitz, where some 83, were killed or died.
Auschwitz AuschwitzOverview of Auschwitz concentration camp, Poland. Heinrich Himmlerchief of the SSthe Nazi paramilitary corps, ordered the establishment of the first camp, the prison camp, on April 27,and the first transport of Polish political prisoners arrived on June This small camp, Auschwitz I, was reserved throughout its history for political prisoners, mainly Poles and Germans.
There the SS later developed a huge concentration camp and extermination complex that included some prison barracks; four large so-called Badeanstalten German: Another camp Buna-Monowitznear the village of Dwory, later called Auschwitz III, became in May a slave-labour camp supplying workers for the nearby chemical and synthetic-rubber works of IG Farben.
In addition, Auschwitz became the nexus of a complex of 45 smaller subcamps in the region, most of which housed slave labourers. Newly arrived prisoners at the death camp were divided in a process known as Selektion.
The young and the able-bodied were sent to work. Young children and their mothers and the old and infirm were sent directly to the gas chambers. Thousands of prisoners were also selected by the camp doctor, Josef Mengelefor medical experiments.
Auschwitz doctors tested methods of sterilization on the prisoners, using massive doses of radiationuterine injections, and other barbaric procedures. German corporations invested heavily in the slave-labour industries adjacent to Auschwitz. German Federal Archive BundesarchivBildphotograph: Just prior to the deportation of Hungarian Jewry, two prisoners escaped with plans of the camp.
They met with resistance leaders in Slovakia and compiled a detailed report including maps. As this report made its way to Western intelligence services in the summer ofthere were requests to bomb Auschwitz.
Although the industrial complex adjacent to Auschwitz was bombed, the death camp and its crematoria were left untouched, a subject of controversy more than 50 years later. One in four died en route from starvation, cold, exhaustion, and despair.
Although the Germans destroyed parts of the camps before abandoning them inmuch of Auschwitz I and Auschwitz II Birkenau remained intact and were later converted into a museum and memorial.
Inhowever, the Polish government joined with other organizations in a large-scale effort to ensure its preservation.The first transport of Poles, political prisoners, deported by Germans from Tarnów prison, reached the Auschwitz camp on June 14, This is why the Polish Parliament instituted June 14 the National Remembrance Day of the Victims of German Nazi Concentration Camps and Extermination Camps.
All over the world, Auschwitz has become a symbol of terror, genocide, and the Holocaust. It was established by Germans in , in the suburbs of Oswiecim, a Polish city that was annexed to the Third Reich by the Nazis. Its name was changed to Auschwitz, which also became the name of Konzentrationslager Auschwitz.
Auschwitz-Birkenau Freight train tracks leading to Auschwitz-Birkenau, Nazi Germany's largest concentration camp, near Oświęcim, Poland.
Dinos Michail—iStock Editorial/Thinkstock A group of Hungarian Jews arriving at the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp in German-occupied Poland. The first prisoners at Auschwitz included German prisoners transferred from Sachsenhausen concentration camp in Germany, where they had been incarcerated as repeat criminal offenders, and Polish political prisoners from Lodz via Dachau concentration camp and from Tarnow in Krakow District of the Generalgouvernement (that part of German-occupied Poland not annexed to Nazi Germany, .
Next to Dachau, Sachsenhausen, Buchenwald, Flossenbürg, Mauthausen and the women's camp of Ravensbrück, Auschwitz was the seventh Nazi concentration camp. In , the first Nazi concentration camp was built in Dachau, Germany to imprison dissidents.
Heinrich Himmler took over in and start arresting “racially undesirable elements” – Jews, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, homosexuals, and the .